October 20, 2021

Crimes and Criminal Market

Criminal law

What is crime?

The word itself explains the meaning; but to break it down, it is not a crime against any individual but the society. It is not between the two parties but between the wrongdoer and the state. The definition of crime is important; because of the types of questions that grab attention and the order of circumstances, it leads one to investigate.

It is not always easy to say when something is wrong. A person who takes money without permission commits a crime, and a person who fails to pay a debt commits a civil wrong (not a crime). Although a civil process can be initiated to recover the money, the borrower can only be prosecuted for a criminal offense if fraud is involved.

There are many more crimes which take place all around the world like this- murder, rape, theft and, many more which is to discuss further.

The number of crimes at global levels is listed below-

  1. Homicide
  2. Assault
  3. Rape
  4. Robbery
  5. House breaking/burglary
  6. Motor vehicle/automobile theft
  7. Kidnapping
  8. Drug crime
  9. Human trafficking
  10. Bribery and corruption
  11. Cyber crime
  12. Maritime piracy
  13. Child pornography
  14. Smuggling of migrants
  15. Trafficking of firearms
  16. Trafficking of environmental resources
  17. Counterfeit products
  18. Murder
  19. Terrorism   
  20. Fraud

Homicide

Intentional homicide falls under the concept of “violent deaths”, which also includes unintentional homicide, conflict deaths, other types of killings, suicides.

The Global Study on Homicide uses the same definition of intentional homicide as the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS): ‘‘Unlawful death inflicted upon a person with the intent to cause death or serious injury”.

This definition contain three (3) important elements-

  • The killing of a person by another person (objective element)
  •  The intent of the perpetrator to kill or seriously injure the victim (subjective element) 
  • The unlawfulness of the killing, which means that the law considers the perpetrator liable for the unlawful death (legal element)

For international purposes, all killings that cover these three criteria listed above are considered that it has been deliberate killing, regardless of the definition used by countries in their country law or other national practices.

Definitions used at national and international levels may vary, as well as the concepts expressed in the framework of the violent death above can be seen in three contexts: conflict, terrorism, and genocide by State authorities. From a statistical point of view, there is a clear distinction between assassination by the State authorities considered legal intervention and assassination by State officials namely is considered illegal and should therefore be counted as murder.

Global

The report estimated that in 2010, the number of people killed worldwide was 468,000. More than a third (36%) occurred in Africa, 31 percent in the Americas, 27 percent in Asia, 5 percent in Europe, and 1 percent in Oceania. Since 1995, the number of homicides in Europe, North America, and Asia has decreased but has risen sharply in Central America and the Caribbean. Of those killed worldwide, 82 percent were victims and 18 percent were women.  On average per capita, “African and American homicide rates (17 and 16 per 100,000 people, respectively) are twice the global average (6.9 per 100,000), and in Asia, Europe and -Oceania (between 3 and 4 out of 100,000) about half “.

Assault

An assault is an act of physical harm or unnecessary touch, or in other legal definitions, a threat or attempts to commit such an act.  Both are crimes and harassment, and therefore, can lead to criminal prosecution, civil liability, or both. In general, the common meaning of the law is the same as in criminal and tort law.

The respondents were asked if the definition was used in their countries in the 2005-2006 survey. One-half of 80 countries provided details of the attack in a 2005-2006 survey; they responded that they had used this general definition. However, applying the standard definition does not yet guarantee comparability; 20% of the countries replied that their data on assault included threats, and almost 60% said that they included punching and/or slapping.

 The addition of threats and punching/slapping may increase the number of assaults. On the other hand, in some countries, the penal code limits assaults to include incidents causing visible injuries. The basic standard definition is therefore not accurate enough for reliable comparison.

The country-level comparisons do not describe differences in real crime between the countries because of different crime definitions, reporting behavior, and recording practices. The region of West and Central Europe was located in the middle of the regional comparison, but countries from West and Central Europe score high on country level. By rates of a major assault, many countries with a high assault rate would not have been high-ranking countries.

Global  

Victimization surveys show that many European countries above the third quartile were also above the Western average in assaults. Most of the countries with low assault rates come from Asia. The total assault has increased between 1996 and 2006, while major assaults have increased since 1996, but not between 2001 and 2006. The trend in ten selected countries (10 countries with the highest assault rates) is increasing, and from 2001 to 2006 in many more countries, and the increase is larger than from 1996 to 2001.

 By rates of a major assault, many countries with a high assault rate would not have been high-ranking countries. Victimization surveys show that many European countries above the third quartile were also above the Western average in assaults. Most of the countries with low assault rates come from Asia. The total assault has increased between 1996 and 2006, while major assaults have increased since 1996, but not between 2001 and 2006. The trend in ten selected countries (10 countries with the highest assault rates) is increasing, and from 2001 to 2006 in many more countries, and the increase is larger than from 1996 to 2001.

Rape

Rape was defined in the UN Crime Trends Survey questionnaire to mean sexual intercourse without valid consent. Two out of three respondents to the 10th survey replied that they were able to follow the definition.

 One reason why the definition was not followed was that attempted rapes were included in their data. This problem applies to other crime types as well, including assault. The number of recorded rapes is relatively small since these offences are rarely reported to the police. Because of the very sensitive nature of the offense, it has been concluded that also victimization surveys underestimate the number of rapes. Rapes are mostly committed by males, and the victims are women.

Global

Statistics of rape and other sexual abuse are common in developed countries and are best documented worldwide. Inconsistent definitions of rape, varying degrees of reporting, recording, prosecution, and conviction for rape create conflicting statistical differences and lead to allegations that many rape statistics are unreliable or misleading. For some authorities, rape of men and women is the only form of rape listed in the statistics. Countries may not describe forced sex on their partner as “rape”. The range of reasons for not reporting rape varies from country to country. It can include fear of retaliation, uncertainty about whether the crime was committed even if the perpetrator intended to harm, not wanting others to know about the rape, not wanting the perpetrator to get into trouble, fear of prosecution (e.g. because of pre-marital sex law), and doubts.

A United Nations statistics report compiled from government sources tells that more than 250,000 cases of rape or attempted rape are recorded by the police each year. The reported data cover 65 countries.

In a study of the United Nations, out of every 100 women who have been sexually abused during their lifetime, 14% have attempted rape and 2.3% have been raped.

Robbery

Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threatening by force, or by placing a frightened victim. According to common law, robbery is defined as the taking of another person’s property, with the intention of permanently seizing the property, by force or fear; that is, it is a worm or a theft that occurs through an attack.

What makes a robbery different from only stealing (theft) is that the robber:

  • takes something from the “person or presence” of the victim as well
  • uses, or threatens to use, coerce or violence.

Robbery Charges

In many provinces, robbery is divided into categories (such as first and second degree, or enlargement and simplicity), depending on the seriousness of the case. Or, different types of robbery can be set in different rules. The worst forms of robbery may include:

  • looting within residential areas (sometimes called home invasion criminals)
  • car theft (forcible or violent taking of a driver’s car)
  • robberies of certain people – such as driving a taxi or people using ATMs, or
  • Robberies carried out using deadly weapons, such as guns or knives (sometimes called armed robbery).

Both weapons, such as clubs, and everyday objects that can be used to injure another person, such as bricks used for hitting someone in the head, can be considered deadly weapons in many provinces. At times, armed robberies are more severe than robberies carried out by other armed men.

Housebreaking/ burglary

Burglary is defined as the illegal entry into almost any premises (not just a home or a business) for the purpose of committing any internal crime (not just stealing / murder). No fractures and physical injuries are required; the evildoer may simply enter through the open door. Unlike robbery, which involves the use of force or fear of possession of another person’s property, usually no victim is present during the burglary.

Burglary laws were enacted to protect people’s homes and to prevent violence, not to prevent theft. Some laws make it a crime to take property; instead, burglary laws are designed to maintain the sanctity of the living space and to protect residents from dangerous contact with burglars in their homes.

Elements of burglary

The definition of burglary comes from state law, so the criminal units may vary slightly depending on the state.

Many states and the Penal Code model use the same basic definition of burglary, namely:

  • Unauthorized breakouts and intrusions
  • on a building or in a residential building
  • For the purpose of internal crime.

All of these things must be present in order for the defendant to be convicted of burglary, so it is important that they are examined closely.

Global

The burglary rate is highest in the region of Oceania (especially in Australia and New Zealand). Of North America, Canada and the USA, as well as South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe of Southern Africa (figure 8 and Annex table 7) have high rates. All of these regions are represented by 3Ǧ4 countries. Several countries in West & Central Europe have high burglary rates (the highest in Denmark, Austria, England & Wales and Sweden), but some have also relatively low rates (Estonia, Latvia, Norway). Israel belongs to the region Near and Middle East /South-West Asia, and it had a high burglary rate. In the other seven countries of the region the burglary rate is very low. No European or North American countries belong to the low crime.

Motor vehicle/ automobile theft

To break it down, motor vehicle theft simply means to steal or attempt to steal the vehicles which do not belong to someone. Stealing- car, truck, motorcycle are common example.

Vehicle theft laws vary from state to state. In many state, car theft is called a major car theft under the law.

However, for example, it is important for the car to stay or not, which law the thief will break. Also, there are crimes that involve car theft in addition to other related crimes, such as seizing certain parts of a car for resale. Let’s look at some common crimes related to car theft.

Global

The difference in car theft is huge between advanced (High Quartile) and developing countries (Very low Quartile). Improved safety systems for new vehicles, as well as a general increase in out-of-the-box cars countries may change the situation in the future, and even within the regions, if the cars are more expensive sold in rich countries are better protected from theft. Improved protection for cars can also change the way cars stolen, for example if a car hijack is the only possible way to drive a car away from the scene.

Trend data show decrease in most countries in the 2000s. Of the ten countries that had the highest theft rates only Malaysia showed an increasing trend from 1996 to 2006 (figure 11). According to the International Crime Victimization Surveys, thefts of cars have decreased slightly in all subsequent surveys since the beginning of the 1990s.

Kidnapping

Kidnapping, is a criminal offense that involves the forcible taking of a person by fraud or by forfeiting and illegally detaining a person. The main motives for kidnapping are to give the victim some form of unconditional slavery, to expose him or her to a commission of certain crimes against his or her own person, or to secure a ransom for his or her release. More recently, kidnappings have been the backdrop for political activists or terrorists seeking government approval.

In all countries it is considered a serious crime punishable by a long sentence or death.

Global

Kidnapping rates were highest in Southern Africa. In South Africa there are three countries (South Africa (2002), Swaziland and Zimbabwe (both of which provided 2004 data). The details of the kidnapping were collected from 1980 to 1986 and from 2001-1986 to 2001- 2006 was available for practice analysis. The average kidnapping rate does not seem to have changed in the last 20 years.

Drug crime

Drug-related crime is the crime of possession, production, or distribution of drugs defined as abuse (such as cocaine, heroin, morphine and amphetamines). Drugs are also associated with crime as drug trafficking and drug production are often controlled by drug dealers, organized crime, and gangs.

Crimes recorded by law enforcement agencies may are directly or indirectly related to drugs. A rate of offenses such as robbery, theft, beating or breaking is driven by the foundation things like drug use. However, from mathematical theory, how much medicine use is responsible for such crimes is not easy kidnapped and rarely part of official reports. On the other hand, law enforcement agencies in many countries produce and store data in cases involving direct drug use or psychotropic substances.

Global

The 1995 National Household Survey (which collects self‐reported information from 4,000 to 9,000 individuals each year) indicates that drug use has declined but that illegal drug use among teenagers (ages 12–17) increased from 1990 to 1995. A second survey, the 1995 Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program (which collects urine specimens and self‐reported data on drug use from arrested persons) reports that a majority of male arrestees in U.S. cities tested positive for drugs.

Six to Ten United Nations Studies of Criminal Justice Practices and Performance of Criminal Justice Systems (UNCTS), covering the years 1995 to 2006, collected data on the first of these sectors; drug-related crimes. The description provided is taken from international drug conferences and included farming, production, construction, production, preparation, marketing, distribution, purchase, sale, delivery by any terms, brokerage, shipping, shipping, transportation, import, export, administration or global drug trafficking.

Tenth UNCTS (2005-2006) collected data both in the complete drug-related crime, as well as in them drug trafficking, which he described as ‘drug cases, unrelated personal use ’.

 UNCTS Eleven (2007-2008) expand the questions by continuing to integrate the three categories –

  • the number of drug-related crimes,
  •  the acquisition / use,
  • Trafficking of drugs.

Human trafficking

“Human Trafficking” can be understood to mean the hiring, transfer, retention or extortion, intimidation or the use of force or other means of coercion, kidnapping, fraud, abuse of power or position of being at risk or of offering or receiving payments or benefits to gaining the consent of the person who controls the other person, for the purpose of exploitation.

Human trafficking involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some form of sexual or commercial activity. Every year, millions of men, women, and children are trafficked around the world – including in the United States. It can happen in any society and the victims can be of any age, race, gender, or nationality. Traffickers may use violence, deception, or false promises of well-paying jobs or romantic relationships to lure victims into trafficking.

Global

The 10th UN-CTS only covered statistics on recorded offences and offenders arrested, prosecuted and convicted based on the UNTOC Protocol definition. Data were collected at the police, prosecution and court level. The number of police recorded cases is highly dependent upon the extent of law enforcement activities and counter trafficking operations.

In many countries (33 out of 52 in 2006), the definition applied by the UN-CTS was the same used in national statistics, thus demonstrating the increased availability of data on this specific form of crime.

Bribery/ corruption

Corruption has been described by Transparency International as “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain.”

Examples of these are:

  • abuse of power conferred on a person by another person or
  • organization work beyond a position or pardon of a person
  • the benefits available to the employee, rather than to their own organization

A bribe and is defined as giving, offering, or donating something that influences an official.

 Examples of this include:

  • payments for faster or better service, for example in the approval of goods or certificates
  • payments made to benefit from public procurement plans
  • donating, providing or receiving gifts, entertainment and hospitality or other valuable items such as donations, sponsorship and student training
  • inequitable hospitality rates and business transactions

The exposure to these hazards varies greatly from country to country. Good research can help you to be honest, to protect yourself and your company and to protect yourself from harm.

Global

The UNCAC concepts of ‘active’ and ‘passive’ bribery, included in all articles of the Convention dealing with criminalization, have been used in the 10th UN-CTS to formulate questions aimed at collecting relevant statistics. Active corruption refers to the situation in which a citizen or a company actively seeks favors from a public official by promising or offering other favors, gifts or money. Passive bribery/ corruption instead is the case in which a public official who is in the position to provide advantages or favors to private citizens or companies, requests them for gifts, money or other favors in exchange.

Cyber crime

Cybercrime is a criminal act that attacks or uses a computer, computer network or network device.

Most, but not all, cybercrime crimes are committed by cybercriminal perpetrators or hackers who seek to make money. Cyber ​​crime is perpetrated by individuals or organizations.

Some cyber killers are organized, use advanced techniques and have high technological capabilities. Some are novice hijackers.

Often, cybercrime is aimed at damaging computers for nonprofit reasons. This can be political or personal.

Types of cybercrime

  • Email and internet fraud.
  • Identity fraud (where personal information is stolen and used).
  • Theft of financial or card payment data.
  • Theft and sale of corporate data.
  • Cyber extortion (demanding money to prevent a threatened attack).
  • Ransom ware attacks (a type of cyber extortion).
  • Crypto jacking (where hackers mine crypto currency using resources they do not own).
  • Cyber spionage (where hackers access government or company data).

Most cybercrime falls under two main categories:

  • Criminal activity that targets
  • Criminal activity that uses computers to commit other crimes.

Global

All over the world, many countries have established their own criminal laws, computer laws, and information technical laws or copyright laws etc to respond to the problem of cyber crime, but when we look at the size of the world in these cases, problems often arise, especially when crime is related to individual citizens of two or more foreign countries. An important problem, therefore, is that the Internet as a global media can be accessed worldwide and it can be viewed in any part of the universe, which is why a particular law will apply to it controversial transactions, it becomes an interesting question due to the diversity of cyber laws of different countries. Under these circumstances, the development of local law governing online transactions can make it much easier to decide on the application of the law manage an online activity. It really requires the combined action of all equally including individuals, institutions, industries, governments and, above all, provinces. As cyber crime has become international ramification, must be addressed through the common legal framework it has international acceptance and acceptance.

Maritime piracy

Maritime crime is a global problem and can originate with drug traffickers but over the past decade we have seen the revival of Piracy in some regions of the world.

Here we discuss the categories of crime, in which only one crime is formed:

  • Illegal military (or Para-military) work
  • Terrorism
  • Smuggling
  • Robbery
  • Types of Piracy Work

Maritime Piracy contains any criminal acts of violence, arrests, rapes, or deportations for private purposes by crew members or passengers on a private ship or a plane bound for the high seas of another ship, aircraft, or persons or property on a ship or aircraft. Hijacking can also be done against a ship, an airplane, a person, or a property in an area outside the jurisdiction of any state, in fact sin crimes being the first example of global domination.

Global

Until recently, robbery crimes were on the decline. The robbery of the 20th century was first seen in South China Sea and Malacca Straits. 3 Attacks rose by about 350 to 450 reported annual attacks during the period 2000-2004, and then dropped by about half in 2005 this reduction is due to efficiency and order international action against looters. But in 2008- In 2009, crime increased again, almost completely on the dramatic increase in criminal crime on the Coast Somali. Crime is also at the forefront of the attention of the international community, such as the sea trade is threatened and payments are made in Somalia the robbers have reached millions of dollars.

Child pornography

Child pornography is to exploit children. It is illegal in most lands. Children’s pornography is often made by taking pictures or videos, or abnormal recordings, of children wearing less than normal clothing, not wearing clothes, or being raped. Children’s pictures can also be made and used. Child pornography is sometimes called “child pornography” because it is child pornography. Child pornography can be done by setting up a camera or other recording device and sexually abusing a child.

Children’s pornography can also be downloaded, transcribed, or computer-generated. In that case, it is called simulated child pornography”, “virtual child pornography”, “non-photographic child pornography”, or “pseudo-photographic child pornography”:the child in the pornography is simulated, virtual, or drawn, meaning the child is not real.

There are many possible reasons for someone to view child pornography. More often than not, the viewer is a child molester, hebephile, or ephebophile who finds children sexually attractive and uses sexually explicit images of minors. Viewers may be curious about this subject. Or a law-abiding rapist may arrange to show pornography to a minor as a form of exercise to convince the teen that children who have sex with adults are normal.

 Mexico is the world’s largest exporter of child pornography.

Global

Child pornography is a global problem. The international community has recognized that children are vulnerable to those who create, exhibit, distribute, and use child pornography and that children may experience serious consequences as a result of child pornography. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (“UNCRC”), ratified by the international community, identifies child pornography as a form of child abuse and calls on the participating nations to take steps to prevent child sexual exploitation. Despite the remarkable efforts of many countries, child pornography remains a major problem.

Smuggling of migrants

Trafficking in human beings (also called human trafficking), under US law, is “facilitating, transporting, attempting to smuggle or smuggle a person or persons across the globe, in violation of one or more national laws, either privately or fraudulently, such as the use of fraudulent documents” .

Internationally, the term is understood and often used in contrast to the smuggling of immigrants, which is defined in the Protocol on Anti-Trafficking in Persons, Oceans and Air, adding to the United Nations Convention against International Organized Crime as “… the procurement, for the benefit of, directly or indirectly, financial gain or other property, of illegal entry into a state party by a person who is not a foreigner “.

Unlike human trafficking, migrant smuggling is characterized by consent between customers and traffickers – a contractual contract that usually ends when it arrives at its destination. However, trafficking situations can actually enter into conditions that can best be described as extreme human rights abuses, where traffickers are threatened, harassed, exploited and tortured, and even die at the hands of traffickers. Individuals involved in trafficking can also be victims of trafficking, for example when they are deceived by the terms and conditions of their role in order to exploit their profession.

Global

The practice of smuggling has seen an increase in the last few decades and today it is now a major cause of illegal immigration in countries around the world. Human trafficking usually occurs with the consent of that person or persons being trafficked, and common reasons for people seeking trafficking include employment and economic opportunity, personal and / or family development, and to avoid persecution, violence or conflict.

In 2015, the ongoing civil war in Syria led to mass exodus and the reliance on smugglers to help people search for a holy place in Europe. This has also led to unprecedented movements – and deaths – across the Mediterranean. According to UNHCR figures, there were about one million landmarks in Europe by 2015, and more than 2900 were migrating or missing. According to the IOM Missing Migrants Project, more than 3800 people died during the global migration in 2015.

Trafficking of firearms

Trafficking in firearms involves the illegal manufacture and distribution of firearms, themselves letters and letters. The most commonly smuggled guns are:

(I) They are small arms (pistols and loading guns, rifles and shotguns, assault rifles, assault rifles, machine guns) and

 (ii) Light weapons (heavy guns, bombs explosives, portable anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns, assault rifles, portable anti-tank missiles and rockets, anti-aircraft missiles, and mud under more than 100 mm caliber).

Global

According to the 2012 United States Foreign Relations Council problems, the financial value of illegal smuggling of small arms and light weapons is justified $ 1 Billion a year, higher than the amount reported in 2010 by the United Nations Office in Drugs and crime, which averages the value of this criminal market between $ 170 Million and $ 320 million.

Trafficking of environmental resources

Transitional organized crime is found everywhere where money can be made through illegal activities. One of those acts is environmental crime, especially the smuggling of wildlife and timber. The problem is especially acute in developing lands, where governments often have little or no control over their natural resources. Misuse of natural resources can lead to corruption and violent conflict.

Although environmental crime is global and multifaceted, the paper discusses only two aspects of it in some parts of the world: the smuggling of wildlife from Africa and South-East Asia to other parts of Asia, and the smuggling of timber from South- -European Union and elsewhere in Asia. The illegal trade in timber between South-East Asia and the European Union and other parts of Asia required an estimated $ 3.5 billion in 2010. In contrast, the sale of ivory, rhinoceros horn, and tiger parts of Asia cost an estimated $ 75 million in 2010, but the environmental impact of this crime is far greater than the low income of criminals.

Global

All regions in Africa with wildlife populations are affected by poaching, but some are much more extreme than others. Governance seems to be the most important factor in deciding whether or not to do so severe poaching took place. Central Africa seems to be the largest source of ivory and South Africa is the largest source of rhino horn.

Counterfeit products

Counterfeit means to impersonate something real, with the intention of stealing, destroying, or substituting first, for the purpose of illegal transactions, or otherwise to deceive people into believing that fraud is of equal or greater value than the real thing. Counterfeit products are counterfeit or unauthorized emblems of the actual product. Counterfeit products are often produced for the purpose of exploiting the high value of the imitated product. The pseudonym often describes both coin and text, as well as the imitation of items such as clothing, bags, shoes, medicines, car parts, parts of unauthorized aircraft (causing many accidents), watches, electronics (both parts and finished products), software, works of art, toys, and movies.

Global

Fraudulent incidents increased by 24% in the country by 2019 last year, creating a margin of more than Rs million in the economy, according to the report.

The report also claims that counterfeiters are operating free of charge due to disruption caused by epidemics on the supply chain and the result that creates consumer demand.

Murder

Murder is the killing of another person illegally without a valid reason or excuse, especially an unlawful killing of another person. This state of mind, in a sense, can distinguish murder from other forms of illicit murder, such as homicide. Intentional manslaughter when there is no evil, brought on by irrational irritability, or diminishing power.

Many societies consider murder to be a serious crime, and therefore a person convicted of murder should receive severe penalties with the intent to retaliate, prevent, rehabilitate, or fail. In many lands, a person convicted of murder usually faces a lengthy prison sentence, life imprisonment, or even death.

Terrorism

Terrorism, the alleged use of violence to create a climate of general fear in the people and thus serves a particular political purpose. Terrorism is perpetrated by political parties with the intent of right and the left, national and religious groups, political reformers, and even state-owned institutions such as the military, intelligence, and the police.

Definitions of terrorism are often complex and contradictory, and, because of the violent nature of terrorism and terrorism, the term in its popular use has caused much controversy. It was first introduced in the 1790s to refer to the horrors used during the French Revolution by the rebels. Jacobin’s Maxim lien Robespierre group has formed a Reign of Terror that includes mass killings by guillotine. Although terrorism in this context refers to an act of state violence against its domestic enemies, since the 20th century the term has been used repeatedly to refer to violence directed, directly or indirectly, by governments in an attempt to influence policy or overthrow an existing state.

Global

Terrorism is a global problem as it affects all regions and continents of the world. It is an event that happens almost every week every month. An estimated 25,673 people lost their lives as a result of the 2016 terrorist attacks. Terrorist events from the first century AD to 1880 are classified as “first terrorism” Modern terrorism events are terrorist-related events that took place after 1880 and were divided by David Rapport into four waves. There is a set of elements in the group that make up a terrorist group. The grounds are used to divide terrorist groups into different parts of the world. Groups designated as terrorist groups by the USA and UK were introduced. Also, a complete understanding of the impact of terrorism uses themes such as: the number of terrorist-related incidents from 1970 to 2016; deaths in various forms of terrorism in different regions, 2002-2016; and economic losses in terrorist activities from 2000-2016.

Fraud

Fraud is a fraudulent act intended to provide the perpetrator with unlawful gain or to deny the victim’s right. Types of fraud include tax fraud, credit card fraud, cable fraud, security fraud, and fraudulent fraud. Fraudulent activity can be done by one person, many people or the company as a whole.

Fraud involves the false representation of facts, either by deliberately concealing important information or by giving false statements to another party for the purpose of obtaining something that may not have been provided without fraud.

Often, the perpetrator knows the details of the victim, allowing the perpetrator to deceive the victim. At heart, a person or company committing fraud uses knowledge of asymmetry; in particular that the cost of resources to review and verify such information may be significant enough to create a stumbling block to investing entirely in fraud prevention.


Author: Srishti Saini (Fairfield Institute of Management & Technology)

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