Bio-Medical Waste – An Indian Perspective (Environmental Law)

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According to Rule 3(f) of the Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016, Bio-medical waste means any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biologicals, and including categories mentioned in Schedule I, of the Bio-medical waste Rules 2016.

As per the act passed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1986 & notified the Bio Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules in July 1998, it is the duty of every “occupier”, (in the case of AIIMS, the Director, AIIMS) i.e. a person who has the control over the institution or its premises, to take all steps to ensure that waste generated is handled without any adverse effect to human health and environment.

It has been a developing attention to the requirement for safe administration of biomedical and social insurance waste everywhere throughout the world. Biomedical waste and Healthcare waste which represent the most serious hazard to human wellbeing are irresistible waste (or biomedical waste) which establishes 15 – 25 percent of complete healthcare waste.

Inappropriate administration of medicinal services waste from emergency clinics, health centers and different hospitals present word related and general wellbeing dangers to patients, wellbeing laborers, waste handlers, haulers and overall population. It might likewise prompt pollution of air, water and soil which may influence all types of life. This problem has now become a serious threat for the public health and, ultimately, the Central Government had to intervene for enforcing proper handling and disposal of hospital waste and an act was passed in July 1996 and a bio-medical waste (handling and management) rule was introduced in 1998.

Hospital waste management is a part of hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. Truth be told just 15% of medical clinic squander for example “Biomedical waste” is dangerous, not the total. However, when unsafe waste isn’t isolated at the wellspring of age and blended in with non-dangerous waste, at that point 100% waste gets perilous.

Based on Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998, notified under the Environment Protection Act by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (Government of India) following are the ways for hospital waste management.

1. Segregation of waste – Segregation is the quintessence of waste administration and ought to be done at the wellspring of age of Bio-clinical waste for example all patient consideration action territories, indicative administrations zones, activity theaters, work rooms, treatment rooms and so forth. The obligation of isolation ought to be with the generator of biomedical waste for example specialists, medical attendants, experts and so on (clinical and paramedical staff). The biomedical waste ought to be segregated according to classes referenced in the guidelines.

2. Collection of bio-medical waste – Astorting of bio-clinical waste ought to be done according to Bio-clinical waste (Management and Handling) Rules. At customary room temperature the gathered waste ought not be put away for over 24 hours

3. Transportation – Inside the hospitla, waste courses must be assigned to maintain a strategic distance from the section of waste through patient consideration zones. Separate time ought to be reserved for transportation of bio-clinical waste to decrease odds of it’s blending in with general waste. Dried up wheeled holders, trolleys or trucks ought to be utilized to move the waste/plastic packs to the site of capacity/treatment. Trolleys or trucks ought to be completely cleaned and sterilized in case of any spillage.

The wheeled compartments ought to be intended to the point that the waste can be handily stacked, remains made sure about during transportation, doesn’t have any sharp edges and is anything but difficult to clean and sanitize. Dangerous biomedical waste requiring transport to a long separation ought to be kept in holders and ought to have legitimate marks. The vehicle is done through dried up vehicles uniquely built for the reason having completely encased body, fixed inside with hardened steel or aluminum to give smooth and impenetrable surface, which can be cleaned. The drivers compartment ought to be isolated from the heap compartment with a bulkhead. The heap compartment ought to be given rooftop vents for ventilation.

4. Treatment of hospital waste – Treatment of waste is required:

-To disinfect the waste so that it is no longer the source of infection.

– To reduce the volume of the waste.

– Make waste unrecognizable for aesthetic reasons.

– Make recycled items unusable

5. Disposal of Bio-Medical Waste- CBFC guidelines provides for disposal of different categories of solid waste like Treated plastic waste, incineration ash, treated waste sharps and glass waste, Oil &Grease waste and ETP sludge using different treatment systems such as autoclaving/microwaving, incineration, chemical disinfection and effluent treatment plant.[1]


It is reasoned that more accentuation should be laid on mutilation of recyclable waste and sanitization of waste by hcws particularly occupant specialists. It was seen that more accentuation needs as laid for mutilation of recyclable waste and sanitization of waste particularly in Treatment Room of wards which are utilized solely by occupant specialists.[2]




Author Details: Deepali Kir (Asian Law College)

The views of the author are personal only. (if any)

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