January 23, 2022

Laws dealing with Inter-country Adoption

Meaning of on Inter-country Adoption

Inter-country adoption refers to the adoption of child from other state than the parent state. It is great characteristics in hindu culture that though out the hindu period, right from the vedic period. The presence of adoptive children in a single structure or different has been perceived. References of Khetraja (Soil born son), Kanina (Mainden child), Dattaka (Adopted child) can be found in the Vedic literature. The greater part of these ideas of secondary children over the span of time got out of date and during the British time period just natural and adopted son existed. These institution has now become international. People adopt from different country because of various reasons, some want to adopt infants or children of young age or because they want children of the same heritage. Many people adopt because of the fears that mothers in their own country might refuse to give up the baby after birth.

Municipal Laws of all countries put a paramount amount of considerations about the welfare of children including our own Constitution which has several provisions in the Fundamental Rights as well as directives in state policy for the welfare of children. It is considered to be the first and foremost duty of the states to help promote and maintain the well-being of children in society. The primary motivation behind appropriation is to give a homely environment to children who are dismissed, undesirable, uncared, or illegitimate. The issue in India is it’s across the board neediness and multi-dimensional social issues due to which children are not appropriately dealt with, truly and intellectually.

Numerous children are frequently tossed into the field of bums, workers, or even prostitutes to meet their day by day needs. Because of meagre assets in the nation, due to scarcity of resources government sometimes can’t deal with such children. In such a circumstance between nation selection improves as a decision for some guardians. Despite the fact that there is no legal authorization in India accommodating the selection of a children by a remote parent there are managerial rules which set out the methodology, as said by Dr. DC Manooja, “It is necessary to bear in mind that the primary object of giving the child in adoption is the welfare of the child. Great care has to be exercised in permitting inter-country adoption lest the child may be neglected or abandoned or subjected to moral of sexual abuse or forced labor or experimentation for medical or other research in the foreign country. The child should not be placed in a worse situation than in his own country.”[1]

The Legislative Framework for on Inter-country Adoption

In the landmark case of Lakshmi Kant Pandey v. UOI,[2] the Apex Court stated that every child has a right to love and be loved. Only if a child is brought up in a family will he grow in an atmosphere of love, and secure moral and material security. But if it is not possible for the biological parents or anyone about look after the child, or if the child is abandoned by his/her family, then adoption of the child will be best for the security of the child. Also The Bombay High Court in Re Jay Kevin Salerno[3] stated that ” where the custody of a child is with an institution, the child is kept in a private nursing home or with a private party for better individual care of the child, it does not mean that the institution ceases to have the custody of the child.” Therefore it may be submitted that in the absence of any explicit legislation on the subject, the Supreme Court has played a pivotal role in regulating the adoption of tendered aged children to foreign parents. It has taken the help of various international guidelines and subject to Indian culture framed the rules thereof.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) manages the issues of between inter-country adoptions. It is additionally directed by the Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter-Country Adoption, 1993 (the HC) and it has been sanctioned by around 90 nations.[4] Also under the Adoption of Children Bill, 1980[5] giving in and taking in child for adoption was made unlawful. Clauses 23 and 24 of the said bill were most relevant in this respect. The United Nations met at Geneva in December 1978,[6] numerous provision and relevant principles for the welfare of children were adopted into this draft. Because of the expanding worry for children welfare and security at the global level, there was a revelation of the Rights of the children received by the general gathering of the United Nations on 21st November 1959. This announcement in the preface expressed that “the children as a result of his physical and mental adolescence needs exceptional defends and care including suitable lawful security, before just as after birth” and furthermore “humanity owes to the children the best it needs to give.”

Article 21[7] of the CRC puts a commitment on the embracing guardians to guarantee that the Child who is being received appreciates a similar degree of measures and projection to the individuals who are presence on account of national adoption. The CRC perceives the significance of genuine guardians and family in the life of a childrens and underscores on the way that the State should help them in shielding the privileges of the child in the event that they are having any trouble.[8]

Additionally, the method of inter-country ought to be picked just when the State can’t guarantee that the children can’t be thought about in a legitimate way in the country of origin. CARA Guidelines express that any foreign couple who wants to adopt a child from India must be supported by a child welfare organisation or a social organization which is perceived by the legislature of the nation in which the foreign couple lives. CARA Guidelines likewise expresses that intra-nation reception is preferred first. According to CARA Guidelines, just three kind of children is perceived as adoptable.[9]

  • Those children who have been given up.
  • The children who are Abandoned.
  • The children who are orphans and are under the consideration of some particular adoption agency.


Inter-country adoption is a very good way to start a new life, for both child and adoptive parents. Adopting a child not only secures his life but also gives ample opportunity to live a better life. The inter-country adoption looks very humble gesture but there is no proper structure to follow up the adoption, the violation of the rights of the child can take place. It is very important that the security of the children is not only ensured within the country but also when child goes out in other nation after been adopted keeping in mind the large scale child trafficking in the world. India at present requires better guidelines and law in both national and international levels to deal deal with Inter-country adoption.

Like some other sorts of adoption, Inter-Country adoption can be costly, tedious and dubious. It is essential to find out about Inter-Country adoption by reading books, going to parent support groups and chatting with individuals who has given a child in adoption or has taken a child in adoption. On the off chance that these viewpoints are dealt with, at that point Inter-Country adoption will give a great many families bliss and fulfillment as it has just satisfied dreams of many.

For more notes on Jurisprudence, click here.


[1] https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/132435/12/12_chapter%207.pdf

[2] 1984 AIR 469

[3] AIR1988 BOM139

[4] https://www.hcch.net/en/instruments/conventions/specialised-sections/intercountry-adoption

[5] http://www.legalservicesindia.com/articles/adopt.htm

[6] https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/LegislativeHistorycrc1en.pdf

[7] Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 21(c).

[8] Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 20.

[9] http://cara.nic.in/PDF/Regulation_english.pdf

Contributed by:

1. Abhishek Chouhan (HNLU)

2. Kalpana Mittal (RMLNLU)

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