Amalgamation of Trade Unions

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Amalgamation of trade unions holds paramount importance within the legal framework, serving as a strategic mechanism for union collaboration. This process, governed by meticulous legal provisions, entails the merging of distinct unions to forge a singular, formidable entity.

Meaning of Amalgamation of Trade Unions

Amalgamation of trade unions is when two or more trade unions join together to make a new union. This can happen because the unions want to do it themselves or the government or a regulatory authority tells them to.

The unions might decide to amalgamate for different reasons, like wanting more power when bargaining, making the organisation work better or dealing with fewer members. By putting together their resources and members, the unions can make a more powerful and unified voice for the workers.

Amalgamation of Trade Unions under Trade Unions Act, 1926

Section 24 of the Trade Unions Act, 1926 talks about trade unions coming together, combining their efforts to create a single union. This can happen with or without dissolving or dividing their funds. For this to occur, at least half of the members of each trade union must vote and 60% of the casted votes should support the proposal.

Moving on to Section 25 of the Trade Unions Act, 1926, it deals with informing the Registrar about any changes in the union’s name or if they amalgamate with another union. The secretary and seven members of the trade union changing its name or in the case of amalgamation of trade unions, the secretary and seven members of each involved trade union, must sign a written notice sent to the Registrar.

If the proposed name is too similar to an existing trade union’s name, the Registrar can refuse to register the change. Once the Registrar in the state where the amalgamated union’s head office is located is satisfied that the law’s requirements are met, the amalgamation of trade unions is officially recognised from the registration date.

In a legal case, D.C.M. Chemical Masdoor Ekta Union v. Registrar of Trade Unions, Delhi (1978), the Delhi High Court clarified that the Registrar has the authority to register a trade union under Section 25, similar to Section 8. Whether the registration is done under Section 8 or Section 25, the Registrar must issue the certificate of registration. It was emphasised that Section 10 covers situations where fraud or mistake is used to gain both the registration and the certificate of registration. Therefore, seeking the reversal of a Section 25 judgment doesn’t provide a remedy to cancel the certificates of registration, as Section 10 applies to both situations.

Legal Requirements for Amalgamation

The legal requirements for amalgamation of trade unions can vary by jurisdiction and the specific trade unions involved. Generally, the following procedures must be followed to ensure lawful and proper execution:

  • Approval from Members: Members of each union must approve the amalgamation of trade unions through a vote or referendum, typically by a simple or two-thirds majority.
  • Notice to Regulatory Agencies: Unions must notify relevant regulatory agencies, such as labour boards or government departments, about their intention to amalgamate.
  • Amalgamation Agreement: Unions need to develop an amalgamation agreement outlining the terms and conditions, approved by members and submitted to regulatory agencies.
  • New Union Registration: Once approved, the new union must register as a legal entity, providing necessary documents to regulatory agencies. In the case of amalgamating two trade unions, the process must adhere to relevant laws and procedures set by the Central Government, as highlighted in the State of Punjab v. Punjab State Electricity Board.

Procedure for Amalgamation of Trade Unions

Section 25 of the Trade Unions Act, 1926 details the procedure for amalgamation of trade unions. A written notice about the name change after amalgamation must be served as specified.

Registration of Amalgamated Trade Unions

Upon satisfying the conditions, the Registrar registers the amalgamation by making an entry in the Register and issues a certificate. The amalgamation of trade unions takes effect from the date of registration.

Effects of Amalgamation of Trade Unions

As per Section 26 of The Trade Unions Act, 1926, a change in the name of a registered trade union doesn’t impact its rights and obligations or affect ongoing legal proceedings. Similarly, the amalgamation of registered trade unions does not prejudice the rights of the unions or any creditors.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Amalgamation of Trade Unions

Advantages of Amalgamation

Increased Bargaining Power:

Amalgamation of trade unions enhances bargaining power, enabling unions to negotiate better wages, benefits and working conditions by presenting a united front to employers.

Improved Organisational Efficiency:

By eliminating duplicative efforts and streamlining administrative processes, amalgamation enhances organisational efficiency, leading to cost savings and more effective resource utilisation.

Greater Political Influence:

Amalgamated unions wield increased political influence at both national and international levels, allowing them to advocate for legislative and policy changes that benefit workers.

Greater Member Engagement:

Amalgamation of trade unions fosters greater member engagement. With a larger membership base, unions can provide more programs and services, fostering a stronger connection between members and the organisation.

Disadvantages of Amalgamation

Loss of Autonomy:

Amalgamation of trade unions results in a loss of autonomy for individual unions as they form a new centralised structure, limiting their ability to make decisions specific to their members.

Cultural Differences:

Challenges may arise if amalgamating unions have different cultures or histories, requiring time for members to adjust to new leadership, structures and processes.

Increased Bureaucracy:

Amalgamation can lead to heightened bureaucracy as the new union establishes policies, procedures and governance structures, potentially diverting resources from other activities.

Membership Disputes:

Amalgamation of trade unions may trigger membership disputes, with members of original unions disagreeing with the new union’s rules, policies or leadership, resulting in factionalism and a loss of unity.

Financial Costs:

Significant financial costs, including legal fees, administrative expenses and integration costs, may arise from an amalgamation of trade unions, placing strain on the new union’s finances, especially in the short term.


Amalgamation of trade unions involves the merging of two or more unions to form a single entity, pooling resources and members for increased bargaining power. This process, governed by legal requirements, aims to enhance organisational efficiency and political influence. Advantages include strengthened negotiation positions and improved member engagement.

However, challenges such as loss of autonomy, cultural differences, increased bureaucracy, membership disputes and financial costs may arise. Overall, amalgamation is a strategic move to create a unified voice for workers but requires careful navigation of potential drawbacks.

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