Important Amendments to the Constitution of India for CLAT 2023

Constitutional Law

The term “amendment” refers to changing or altering existing legal provisions. The country’s laws must be revised as time passes. Amendments to the Constitution of India can be carried out as per Article 368 of the Constitution of India.

Amendments to the Constitution of India can’t be rigid and stable. Changes in legal provisions are a strong indicator of progress. Many significant constitutional amendments have completely transformed the shape of a statute or a specific provision.

Important Amendments of the Indian Constitution

The constitution of India is neither strict nor flexible. Article 368 of the Indian Constitution grants Parliament the authority to change it, subject to the ‘Basic structure of the Constitution.’ There are three methods for doing so:

  1. By simple majority
  2. By special majority
  3. By special majority with ratification by half of the states.
  4.  

A complete list of “Important Amendments to the Indian Constitution in English” can be found below.

1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951

It was the first amendment passed after India gained independence and became a republic. Part III of the Constitution included the addition of Article 15 clause 4 and Article 19 clause 6.

15th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1963

The retirement age of a High Court judge was raised from 60 to 62 years as a result of this alteration.

21st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1967

The Sindhi language was added to the Constitution’s Eighth Schedule as a regional language in this amendment.

24th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971

The purpose of this amendment was to overturn the ruling in Golaknath’s case. Parliament now has the power to modify fundamental rights or any element of the Constitution, according to the amendment. Article 368 gives the parliament the power to change or amend any article of the Constitution.

42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976

The mini-Constitution is another name for this amendment. By adding the words ‘SOCIALIST,’ ‘SECULAR,’ and ‘INTEGRITY’ to the preamble of the Constitution, this amendment made a significant alteration. With this change, the President was required to operate with the council of ministers’ assistance and recommendations. In addition, the Constitution was amended to include a crucial Part IVA as Fundamental Duties.

44th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1978

The right to property was no longer a fundamental right under Part III of the Constitution after this change. Under Article 300A, the right to property is now simply a legal and constitutional right.

There are three criteria in Article 352 for declaring a national emergency in India. The terms ‘armed rebellion’ was swapped for the words ‘internal disturbance’ on the ground. After forwarding the advice to the council of ministers for reconsideration, this modification made it mandatory for the President to follow it. The declaration of an emergency is now subject to the court’s scrutiny and judicial review.

58th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1987

The people of India now have access to an authentic version of the Constitution in Hindi as a result of this modification.

61st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1988

The election pattern in India was altered as a result of this modification. The voting age was lowered from 21 to 18 years old.

73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992

Part XI of the Constitution was inserted to deal with the Panchayati Raj System in India.

74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992

Part IXA of the Constitution was added for municipalities as a result of this change.

77th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1995

This amendment inserted clause 4A to Article 16 of the Constitution, which allows scheduled castes and scheduled tribes to be promoted to government positions.

81st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000

The 50 percent ceiling cap for reservation of SCs and STs was removed from clause 4B of Article 16 of the Constitution with this modification. The forward carry rule for backlog vacancies for SCs and STs was established by this amendment.

86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002

Children’s education has changed as a result of this modification. It amended the Constitution to include Article 21A, which establishes the right to education for children aged 6 to 14. The right to education has now been designated as a Fundamental Right.

92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003

Bodo, Dogri, Santhali, and Maithili were all added to the Constitution’s Eighth Schedule as a result of this modification.

99th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2014

The National Judicial Appointment Commission was established by this amendment to oversee the appointment of judges. However, the Supreme Court declared this commission illegal in 2015, and the collegium method for appointing justices was reinstated.

101st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2017

The Goods and Services Tax was reintroduced as a multi-stage, comprehensive tax as a result of this modification. Many federal and state taxes were eliminated, and the tax structure was brought into consistency. It covers the entire Indian subcontinent.

103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019

This amendment adds a 10% reservation to the economically weaker section (EWS) who are not already a reserved category under the SC, ST, or socially and economically backward sections under Articles 15 and 16, respectively. The reservation is made to gain access to government employment and admissions.

104th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2020

The time of reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and state legislatures has been extended as a result of this amendment.

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